+LOCKHART NEWS NEWSLETTER #8
SOME DECENDANTS OF MATTHEW WYNGE, 1550-1614,
BANBURY, OXFORDSHIRE, ENGLAND
For background, the following bios of Matthew and his son John and grandson Daniel are taken from: http://worldcupcafe.pbwiki.com (edited version)
From these meager records, as well as knowledge of contemporary English history, we are able to piece together a biography of his life and times. Matthew was born around 1550, either at the end of the reign of Henry VIII or (more likely) during the short reign of his son, Edward VI. His early life must have been highly influenced by the religious convulsions of the English throne. Before Matthew's birth Henry VIII split from the Roman Catholic Church and founded what is now called the Church of England. Upon Henry's death, his young son, Edward, was crowned King. However, as he was then only 9 years old, a council of regents had been appointed by his father to run the country. The regents further solidified the Protestant reforms of the church. Edward's death, while still a minor, in 1553, caused chaos. Henry's eldest daughter, Mary, a Roman Catholic, eventually was crowned Queen after the brief (9 day) reign (in name only) of Lady Jane Grey (who was not only a Protestant, but the daughter-in-law of the chief Regent.) Most of the powerful Lords in England were Protestant, and had tried to prevent Mary from assuming the crown. During her short reign of 5 years, she had almost three hundred religious dissenters executed, earning the epithet of "Bloody Mary." (In reality, she was merely continuing the tradition of her father in executing those who got in her way.) (THAT RELIGIOUS THING, AGAIN!) After Mary's death in 1558, her half-sister, Elizabeth ascended to the throne. Elizabeth was a Protestant, and once again changed the church service to Protestantism.
During this time, church attendance was mandatory. Persons who failed to attend church were severely fined and even imprisoned. The English population had "front row seats" into the religious convulsions caused by the Royalty. The local parish priest likely was replaced several times during this brief period. Church Registers were usually destroyed when the faith was changed (which is why almost no parish records exist prior to the start of the reign of Elizabeth I in 1558.) During this time period EVERYONE was able to see, first-hand, how every aspect of religion is subject to interpretation. This, plus the new technology of the printing press, had revolutionized the whole concept of religion. The invention of the printing press made it possible for people to own their own Bible. No longer did they have to rely on the word of the parish priest for what the Bible said. They can now read it for themselves. This technology required people to be better educated (so they can read the books now being printed) which caused a flourishing of the colleges. This increased education also helped give rise to the middle-class, of which Matthew had belonged.
John Winge was baptized at St. Mary's Church, Banbury, Oxford, England on 12 JAN 1584/5, the 3rd son (and 6th child) of Matthew Wynge and his first wife, Mary __? . He entered Oxford University on 15 OCT 1599, and at the age of 14, was at that time the youngest student ever to be enrolled. He graduated with a B.A. from Queen's College, Oxford on 12 FEB 1603/4.
John was first installed as a minister "St. Nicholas Church, , Strood, Kent, England by late 1608, upon the death of the previous priest (Undoubtedly the "Mr williams" who died 5 DEC 1608) . A study of the handwriting of the parish register indicates that John may have been there as early as 1605 (possibly assisting the previous pastor). At about the same time John married Deborah Bachiler, the eldest daughter of Rev. Stephen Bachiler. John continued to preach there until the latter part of NOV 1614. The first two children of John and Deborah (coincidentally named Deborah and John) were baptized at Strood in 1609 & 1611 respectively.
John lived in Sandwich, Kent, England at one time. The only time available would have been during the period between his serving at Strood and his becoming pastor to the Merchant Adventurers at Hamburg. Rev. John's sermon "The Crown Conjugall" was preached here. This was his earliest sermon that he later published (in NOV 1620). Their son, Daniel was likely born there during this time period. If so, Daniel would have the distinction of being the only original settler of Sandwich in Plymouth Colony to have been born at its namesake city.
Rev. John Winge became the minister to the Society of Merchant Adventures at Hamburg by 1617. During his stay at Hamburg, John published at least two of his sermons: "Jacob's Staffe" and "Abel's Offering" both published in 1617. While these were the two earliest sermons he published, he drafted them after his sermon "The Crown Conjugall." While living at Hamburg, John and Deborah had a son (Joseph) baptized (5 NOV 1618). However, this son apparently died young.
Rev. John was installed as the pastor of the English Church at Flushing on 19 JUN 1620. While living at Flushing, he also periodically preached at Middelburg. It appears that Stephen, and possibly other children, were born at Flushing. He removed to The Hague, where he was installed the priest of the English Church there about 10 MAR 1627. The youngest son, Matthew, apparently was born while the family lived at Flushing.
It appears that life in the Dutch cities ruined John's health. As early as 1620, in the dedication of his book "The Crown Conjugal" he spoke of "afflection upon mine external state, doe daily provoke and deeply challenge from me..." In his letter to Sir Dudley Carleton Rev. John stated that he had been so ill he could not even hold a quill pen to write.
It appears that Rev. John had decided to emigrate to New England, but his health worsened, and he died before plans can be finalized. He left a will at St. Mary Aldermary, London, dated 2 NOV 1629. The will stated all of his property was to be sold and the monies divided between his widow and his children. It is believed that he may have also had made out a will at The Hague.
John Winge and Deborah Bachiler had the following children:
Deborah, baptized Strood, Kent, England 12 OCT 1609
John, baptized Strood, Kent, England 1 SEP 1611
Daniel, born probably at Sandwich, Kent, England circa 1616
Joseph, baptized at Hamburg (now Germany) 5 NOV 1618. He probably died young.
Stephen, born probably at Flushing (now the Netherlands) circa 1621.
Daughters, names unknown
Matthew, born probably at The Hague after 1627.
Daniel Wing was born, probably at Sandwich, Kent, England, circa 1616. If a native of Sandwich, he would have the distinction of being the only originally settler of Sandwich, Massachusetts born at it's namesake city. Shortly after his birth, the family moved to Hamburg (now in Germany), where Rev. John Winge was pastor for the Society of Merchant Adventurers. The family's stay at Hamburg was rather short, for in 1620 the family moved to Flushing, Zeeland (now the Netherlands). They lived in Flushing for several years, but moved to The Hague in 1627.
It appears that Rev. John was making arrangements to emigrate to the New World when he died in 1629 or 1630. His widow did move her family to New England with her father, Rev. Stephen Bachiler, in early 1632. They lived at Saugus (now Lynn) for five years, before moving to the new settlement on Cape Cod - Sandwich.
Daniel purchased the homestead of Andrew Hallett, one of the original settlers of Sandwich who had decided to mover further up the Cape to Yarmouth. The WFA is in possession of the Deed where Andrew sold the land to Daniel. This deed has the distinction of being the oldest surviving deed to property on Cape Cod. In addition, the home is recognized by the Massachusetts Historical Commission as being the oldest home on the Cape.
Daniel married Hannah Swift of Sandwich on 5 NOV 1642. Hannah had 10 children and died ten days after her last child was born, on 31 JAN 1664/5. The widower Daniel married Anna Ewer in JUN 1666. At the time of this marriage, Daniel was about 50 years old, yet he and Anna had 3 children who all survived.
Daniel embraced the new Quaker religion and suffered greatly under the Quaker persecution. The constant fines had come to the point where he was afraid of losing his homestead. In order to escape that fate, he had his estate probated during his lifetime and given to his children. This event has caused much confusion to family historians ever since.
Daniel died at Sandwich on 10 MAR 1697/8 and his wife Anna probably died around 1720.
Children of Daniel Wing, by first wife, Hannah Swift
Hannah, born 28 JUL 1643
Lydia, born 23 MAY 1647
Deborah, born 10 OCT 1648, died before 1660
[poss.] Mary, born 13 OCT 1650. If she existed, then she probably died young
Samuel, born 28 AUG 1652
Hepzibah, born 7 NOV 1654, never married.
John, born 14 NOV 1656
Beulah, born 16 NOV 1658
Deborah, born NOV 1660
Daniel, born 21 JAN 1664/5
Daniel Wing had by second wife, Anna Ewer
Experience, born 4 AUG 1668
Bachelor, born 10 DEC 1671
Jashub, born 30 MAR 1674
Image above: Signature of John Winge from his letter to Sir Dudley Carleton mentioned on page 2.
Image above: Title page.
Wing, John, of Flushing, Zealand. (författare) The crovvne coniugall or, The spouse royall· [Elektronisk resurs] A discovery of the true honor and happines of Christian matrimony published for their consolation who are married, and their encouragement who are not, intending the benefit of both. By Iohn Wing pastor to the English Congregation, resident at Vlishing in Zeeland. 1620 (AND NO, I DID NOT MAKE THESE TITLES UP!)
Image above: Engraving showing Frederick and Elizabeth, King and Queen of Bohemia with two children (on left). Elizabeth was the eldest child of King James I.
Image above: Title of sermon that John Winge preached May 18, 1623 with Elizabeth in attendance.
Wing, John, of Flushing, Zealand. (författare) The saints aduantage or The welfare of the faithfull, in the worst times [Elektronisk resurs] A sermon, preached at the Hage the 18. of May, 1623. before the most high, and mighty princesse, Elizabeth, by the grace of God, Queene of Bohemia, Countesse Palatine of the Rhene, &c. By Iohn Wing, an vnworthy minister of the gospel and pastor to the English Church at Flishing in Zealand. 1623
The Translated Will of Matthew Wynge of Banbury (The paragraphing was added for
ease in reading) www.wingfamilyorg.orgThis will was updated April 18, 2007 thanks to Paul Gifford who also translated the Probate which was in Latin-7-
AUGUST 9, 1614I, Mathew Wynge of Banbury in the conntie of Oxford Taylor being of perfect memory thanks be to God I do make this my last will and testament in mannor and form following;Inprimis- I bequeath my soule to God my master and to Jesus Christ my redeemer and my body to be buried in Banbury Church yard.Item I give and bequeath to the poore of Banbury tenne shillings.Item I give (and bequeath) ( "and bequeath" has a line drawn through it) onto Fulke myne eldest sonn the lease of my home which I now dwell in and twentie pounds in money.Item I give to Thomas my second sonne thirteene pounds.item I give to John my thryd sonne fortie shillings.Item I give to Robert Chammberlayne my sonne in law tenne pounds.Item I give to Johana my daughter twentie shillings.Item I give to the children of Fulke my eldest sonne aforesaid as follows: To Anne his eldest Daughter foure pounds a fetherbed and two payer of sheets. Item I give to Dorcas his second daughter three pounds a woll (wool?) bed two payer of sheets and the best brass pot. Item I give to Mary his youngest daughter three pounds and two payer of sheets or bolster a coverlet. Item I give to Matthew his sonne, five pounds & the meddle brass pott the ? sheets and a blankett.Item I give to John Wynge the sonne of Thomas Wynge my second sonne aforesaid fortie shillings.Item I give to Debora Wynge the daughter of John Wynge my third sonne and to John his sonne twentie shillings a piece.Item I give to John Nicholls the sonne of John Nicholls my sonne in law twenty shillings.Item I give to William Wynge the sonne of James Wynge my fourthe sonne twentie shillings.Item I give to Thomas Chammberlayne the sonne of Robert Chamberlayne my sonne in law twentie shillinges.Item I give to the children of Richard Gullins vizaviz to John four shillings six pence to Thomas fourteen pence and to Phoebe twelve pence.Item my will is that if any of my childrens children shall decease that then such legacy that I have bequeathed to them shall remayne to surviving brother or sister or such child or children to be equally divided amongst themItem my will is that James my fourth sonne shall not repaye the fiftie shillings English he owes me but be aquitted of the same.Item I give unto Anne my wife thirtie poundes of lawfull English money to be payed to her by two several payments within the space of one
year from my decease. My will is that she shall also have the free and quiet use of my hall house lower chamber yarde and leaneto, our little house in the same and also the use of all the rest of my household stuffs is bequeathed in my will so long as she shall remayne wydowed and no longer.Last of all I give the rest of my goods as bequeathed (my debts being paid and funeral discharged) onto my children viz to Fulke" Thomas' John' James' and Johana to be equallie divided amongst them.Item I make my first sonnes Fulke and Thomas exectutors of this my last will and testament and I appoint my loving friends Mr. Thomas Whatley Mr. Nichodemus Edens and Mr. John Nicholls my overseers of this my last will and I do give them three shillings a piece: And if any doubt or ambiquity do arise concerning this my last will and testament my will is that to be determyned and ended by by those my payed overseers or two of them. And hereunto I have set my hand and seal the day and year above written.The mark of Matthew Wynge. Those being called to be wittnesses Thomas Hall & Allen NichollMy thanks to Paul Gifford, descendant of Sarah Wing & Robert Gifford for sending me his corrections & additions to this will. Paul was able to identify "lower" chamber yarde. He was also able to identify Mr. Nichodemus Edens and correct the 2nd witness...Allen NichollHe then contributed the Probate that was in Latin and which I basically ignored because I do not have any foundation in Latin. His translation of the Latin is below. PROBATUM fuit testamentum suprascriptum apud London coram Mag[ist]roEdmundo Pope legum doctore Surrogato venerabilis viri Dni JohannisBenet militis legum etiam doctoris Curie Prerogative CantuariensisMagristri Custodi sive Commissarij legitime constituti decimoquintodie[next page:] Mensis Novembris Anno D[omi]ni millesimo sexcentesimodecimo quarto Juramento Fulconis [not sure about this last word] etThome Winge filiorum n[atu]rium et legitimorum dicti defuncti et executorum in eodem testamento nominat[ ] Quibus commissar siveAdministratio bonorum Invid et creditorum dicti defuncti de bene etfideliter administrand or ad Dei Evangelia Jurat.Some of the words and word endings aren't right---it would be easy enough to find the formula by searching on Google the particular
combinations of words. Essentially this means that the will was proved at London before Mr. Edmund Pope, LL.D., Surrogate Judge, and Sir John Benet, Judge of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, on 15 November 1614 by Thomas Winge, natural and legitimate son of the deceased, and executor named in his will, and he was appointed to administer his goods, credits, etc.
Approximate values of money during the Elizabethan era:Shilling (s.)...$25.00Pound...$500.00Wages: Yeoman: 2 to 6 pounds per year ($1000-$3000 )Minor Parson: 10 to 30 pounds per year ($5000-$15000)Esquire: 500 to 1000 pounds per year ($$25000-$50000)There seems little doubt that Matthew Wing worked hard and saved diligently. His class in life was probably between that of a Yeoman and a Gentleman. The fact that his relative, John Wing, (who was possibly his brother) became a Chief Burgess for life indicates that the Wing's were climbing the ladder to a higher social-economic plateau.Bear in mind that these are all approximations:Matthew Wing's will in dollars:
To the poor of Banbury = 10 shillings ($250.00)This would buy 125 loaves of bread, or 10 pairs of shoes, or 62 pounds of soap.To son, Fulke Wing = the lease to the house and 20 pounds ($10,000.00)The bequest that Matthew left to Fulke is the surest evidence that Fulke became the tailor in the family after the death of his father. There is little question that the house the Wing family lived in also doubled as the shop that Matthew Wing worked out of. The front of the ground floor probably served as the shop and the window shutter might have swung downward into the street to create a kind of shop counter. This probably had a canopy overhead to protect against rain. Tradesman and craftsmen commonly worked at home.To son, Thomas Wing = 13 pounds ( $6500.00). Thomas was in the military.To son, John Wing = 40 shillings ($1000.00)Matthew left Rev. John Wing only $500.00 more than he left his grandchildren. The reason for this is probably because John was the only son that we know of that was sent to Oxford. Perhaps the agreement was that John would pay for his education by forgoing a portion of his legacy...although John would not have gone on to Oxford if he had not proven that he was a scholar to begin with.To son-in-law, Robert Chamberlain = 10 pounds ($5000.00)
This bequest may have been a part of the dowry that went with Joan Wing when she married Robert. There may have been an agreement that the dowry would be payed upon the death of Matthew Wing.To daughter, JoAnne (Joan) (wife of Robert Chamberlain) = 20 shillings ($500.00)It should also be noted that although James Wynge is apparently alive at the time his father wrote this will that Matthew did not leave James any money although he did aquit him of his debt of fifty shillings. (if my calculations are correct that would be about $1250.00 in current money).To Granddaughter, Anne, Fulk Wing's daughter = 20 shillings ($500.00)To Granddaughter, Dorcas, Fulk Wing's daughter= 20 shillings ($500.00)To Granddaughter, Mary, Fulk Wing's daughter= 20 shillings ($500.00)To Grandson, Matthew, son of Fulk Wing = 20 shillings ($500.00)To Grandson, John Wing, son of Thomas Wing = 20 shillings ($500.00)To Granddaughter, Deborah Wing, daughter of John Wing = 20 shillings ($500.00)To Grandson, John Wing, son of John Wing = 20 shillings ($500.00)To Grandson, John Nicholls, son of Elizabeth Wing = 20 shillings ($500.00)To Grandson, William Wing, son of James Wing = 20 shillings ($500.00)To Grandson, Thomas Chamberlayne, son of Joan Wing = 20 shillings ($500.00)To John Gullins, son of Richard Gullins (relationship unknown) = 4 shillings, 6 pence...a little over a $100.To Thomas Gullins, son of Richard Gullins (relationship unknown) = 14 pence...I have no idea how much that would be.To Phebe Gullins, daughter of Richard Gullins (relationship unknown)= 12 pence...For now the relationship between the Wings and the Gullins will have to remain a mystery. There are any number of possibilities to imagine concerning their link.If my conversion of shillings and pounds are correct and if I added everything properly the total cash sum of Matthew Wynge's will is $27750.00, not including the debt that he forgave James which amounted to approximately $1250.00....Matthew's will is practically a King's ransom to the middle class citizen of 17th century England. Half of the population of England from 1600 to beyond the time of Matthew Wing's death were considered poor to destitute. Whenever times of depression overwhelmed the cloth areas, country weavers suffered great losses. Rowland Vaughan recorded in "his Booke" for the year 1604: "There bee within a mile and
a halfe from my house five hundred poor habitations; whose greatest means consist in spinning Flaxe, Hempe, and Hardes. There is not one amongst ten that hath five shillings to buy a Bale of Flaxe, but are forc'd to borrow money to put up their trade and run to Hereford (loosing a dayes worke) to fetch the same."
Image above: Daniel Wing house, Sandwich. The house is still standing however it has been added to over the years and no longer appears as it would have during the life of Daniel.
Image above: Copy of a plaque placed at the location of the home of Deborah Bachiler Wing.
The last two illustrations are from the Wing chapter of Annals of the Sinnott, Rogers, Coffin Corlies, Reeves, Bodine and Allied Families., Mary Elizabeth Sinnott. The book is available by searching GOOGLE ADVANCED BOOK SEARCH.
This family group is, in my opinion, one of the most interesting families to which we are related. There is more information about this family which can be obtained by simple searches if you have an interest.